Outdoor-to-Indoor Propagation Modeling and Measurement for Satellite and HAP Communications

The building penetration loss is one of the key factors in planning future satellite-to-indoor/HAP-to-indoor communication links. An extensive measurement campaign, covering a representative set of typical buildings in an urban area and aimed at building penetration loss for high elevation angles at L-, S- and C-band, was performed in Prague in 2009. Throughout the measurements, a remote-controlled airship was used as a pseudo-satellite carrying a transmitter which provided unmodulated continuous wave left-handed circularly polarized signals at 2.0 GHz, 3.5 GHz, 5.0 GHz, and 6.5 GHz. Based on a thorough analysis of the resulting experimental data new elevation dependent empirical models were introduced at corresponding frequencies.

Supported by


Selected papers