EM Fields in Medicine and Industry (EM-Med)

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Our team focuses on basic and applied research on electromagnetic (EM) field applications in medicine and biology. And research and development of EM applications used for new industrial technologies protecting the environment.

The research interests of our team can be defined as the study of EM field interactions with matter, with a focus on EM field interactions with biological systems, in particular with the human body. By studying these interactions, we aim to identify the biological effects of EM fields on humans. In particular, positive effects that can be used in medicine to develop new therapies. One of our research priorities is the research and development of microwave technologies for microwave hyperthermia, which is used for the treatment of cancer.

We are also pursuing research into the negative biological effects of EM fields on humans. And we are also studying the basic principles of how EM fields can be generated in biological systems themselves.

The results of EM field-matter interaction studies can also be used to develop new green industrial technologies, especially for emission-free microwave heating and drying of various types of materials.

For our work, we mainly use the Sim4Life software tool, developed specifically for the study of EM field interactions with the human body. However, our students also have access to other SW products such as Comsol Multiphysics, CST Studio, FEKO, IE3D and Microwave Office. The results of numerical simulations are then verified experimentally in our laboratory.


Since the establishment of the EM Field Department in 1972, its researchers have been working on the biological effects of EM fields (prof. Tysl, prof. Vokurka, assoc. prof. Coufalová and others). We have been working in the field of therapeutic applications of EM fields since 1981, when Prof. Jan Vrba (then assistant professor) noted a new initiative in the field of cancer treatment, the so-called microwave hyperthermia. And he found doctors from the Faculty of Medicine of Charles University and from the Radiotherapy Institute (RÚ) in Prague who were interested in starting clinical applications of hyperthermia. Our team then developed a microwave hyperthermia system for the RÚ and the first clinical applications of microwave hyperthermia in Czechoslovakia began in 1982. This was the beginning of a long collaboration between our team and physicians in the field of research on EM field applications for cancer treatment.

In the early 1990s we expanded our research activities into the field of ecological industrial technologies for emission-free microwave heating and drying of various types of materials.

Our former graduate students and PhD students have always made a significant contribution to our research work. More than 150 students have defended their theses in cooperation with our team. And some of them have gone on to pursue doctoral studies with us, with 16 dissertations successfully defended. And we continue to be very interested in students who would like to work in our research team. We offer interesting topics focused on promising EM technologies in medicine and industry.

Department of Electromagnetic Field, FEE, Czech Technical University in Prague
Technická 2, 166 27 Prague, Czech Republic
Prof. Jan Vrba,
, +420 603 714 097


Jan Vrba

• coordination of research activities of the EM-Med team
• research and development of EM field therapeutic applications
• research on methods for microwave medical diagnostics
• study of the biological effects of EM fields
• study of EM fields generated by living systems
• development of green microwave technologies

polivka_0.jpg Milan Polívka

interaction of antenna structures with the skin
• epidermal chipless and harmonic RFID transponders
• electrically small multiband planar antennas
• artificial EM surfaces

Ladislav Oppl

• medical applications in EM
• diagnostic methods based on the measurement of the complex permittivity of biological tissues

svanda_0.jpg Milan Švanda

• wearable antennas and interaction with the human body
• implantable antennas
• coupling of RFID and biological sensors
• special design of planar antennas

Milan Babák

• research and development of applicators for EM field therapeutic applications
• UWB radar-based microwave medical diagnostics

Jesus Cumana

• research and development of EM field therapeutic applications
• development of a microwave generator for hyperthermia


The EM-Med team focuses on research and development in the following areas:

Medical applications of electromagnetic fields

The first (and historically oldest) area of our research activity is medical applications of EM fields. The focus of our work in this area is the development of new radiation structures (so-called applicators) for microwave thermotherapy and especially for its applications in physiotherapy (so-called diathermy for the treatment of rheumatic diseases), oncology (i.e. hyperthermia in cancer treatment), urology (in benign prostatic hyperplasia) and cardiology (thermoablation in cardiac arrhythmias and fibrillation). We also provide physical and technical consultations to teams of physicians who apply microwave thermotherapy in clinical practice, especially to physicians of the Institute of Radiation Oncology (Bulovka University Hospital), where treatment of cancer patients with hyperthermia has been carried out since 1982.

Research of new promising diagnostic methods

The second area of our research is the theoretical basis of new prospective diagnostic methods based on the measurement of the reflection coefficient and transmission (or attenuation) of EM waves in the study area. It takes advantage of the fact that different types of biological tissues have different values of dielectric parameters.

Exposure chambers for experimental research on the effects of EM fields on biological systems

A third important area of our activity is exposure chambers for experimental research on the effects of EM fields on biological systems. This is for research of both thermal and non-thermal effects. These exposure chambers or exposure systems are adapted to the requirements of the relevant biological and medical institutions. For example, for research on thermal effects of EM fields we have developed technical equipment for the Institute of Microbiology of the CAS. The exposure chamber for research on non-thermal effects of EM fields was developed according to the requirements of the Faculty of Medicine of the Charles University in Pilsen.

Study of the principles by which EM fields can be generated in biological systems

The fourth area of our research is the study of the principles by which EM fields can be generated in biological systems. In collaboration with the Institute of Photonics and Electronics of the CAS, we are involved in the development of an extremely sensitive system for measuring signals emitted by biological nanostructures, based on the study and analysis of these nanostructures.

Development of promising industrial technologies based on the use of EM fields

Fifth, we are also engaged in research and development of promising industrial technologies based on the use of EM fields that are beneficial for environmental protection, e.g. heating and drying of materials using energy-efficient microwave methods.

Research on the interaction of biological tissue with radiating structures

Another area under investigation is the interaction of radiating structures, such as antennas or electromagnetic scatterers, with the biological tissue of the human body. The aim of the research is to develop general design techniques for radiating structures that can be placed in close proximity to tissue without degrading their properties and without too much energy entering the tissue itself. This area also includes the design of implantable antennas that can operate efficiently inside tissue, including the use of wireless power systems to increase communication range, etc. 

Development of sensors for non-contact sensing of biological variables

The last research area that the EM-Med team focuses on is the development of chip and chipless transponders in conjunction with sensors for contactless sensing of not only biological quantities. Again, an integral part of this is the development of structures so that they can be effectively placed in the complex environment of proximity to biological tissue.


In recent years, our team has been commissioned by several international scientific societies to organize major scientific conferences and seminars held here in Prague:

  • ESHO 2007 – Annual Meeting of European Society for Hyperthermia Oncology (in cooperation with European Society for Hyperthermia Oncology, website: http://esho.info).
  • PIERS 2007 – Progress in Electromagnetic Research (in cooperation with Electromagnetics Academy, website: http://emacademy.org).
  • MAREW 2008 – Czech and Slovak Microwave Week 2008 (in cooperation with the Czechoslovak Section of IEEE, website: https://www.ieee.cz/en).
  • ISMOT 2011 – International Symposium on Microwave and Optical Technology.
  • Workshop COST TD 1301 „My Wave“, 2013.
  • Workshop COST BM 1306 „EMF-MED“, 2014.
  • PIERS 2015 – Progress in Electromagnetic Research (in cooperation with Electromagnetics Academy, website: http://emacademy.org).
  • EuMCE 2019 – European Microwave Conference in Central Europe (in cooperation withEuropean Microwave Association, website: https://eumwa.org)


Journal publications


  • M. Polívka, M. Švanda, Class of Platform-Tolerant High Encoding Capacity Chipless RFID Tags for EAN/GTIN Encoding, IEEE IoT journal, 2023, přijato k publikaci. 
  • M. Svanda, J. Machac, M. Polivka: Constrains of Using Conductive Screen-Printing for Chipless 2 RFID TAGs with Enhanced RCS Response, Appl. Sci., 2023, 13, 148.
  • H. Ayadi, J. Machac, M. Svanda, N. Boulejfen, L. Latrach: Proof of Concept of Reconfigurable Solvent Vapor Sensor Tag with Wireless Power Transfer for IoT Applications, Appl. Sci., 2022, 12, 10266.
  • M. Polivka, V. Hubata-Vacek, M Svanda, Harmonic Balance / Full-Wave Analysis of Wearable Harmonic Transponder for IoT Applications, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 70, issue 2, pp. 977-987, Feb. 2022.
  • Cumana Morales, J., Vrba J., VRBA J. Computer-aided design methodology for inductive compensated microwave class-E power amplifier, International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, 2021, 31(12).


  • O. Fišer, et al., Temperature dependent dielectric spectroscopy of muscle tissue phantom, International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, 2020, 2020 885-891.
  • J. Pokorný, J. Pokorný, J. Vrba, Electromagnetic communication between cells through tunneling nanotubes, International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, 2020, 12(9), 831-838.
  • J. Kracek, M. Svanda, K. Hoffmann, Scalar method for reading of chipless RFID tags based on limited ground plane backed dipole resonator array, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 4547-4558, Nov. 2019.
  • M. Svanda, M. Polivka, J. Havlicek, J. Machac, D. H. Werner, Platform tolerant, high encoding capacity dipole array-plate chipless RFID tags, IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 138707-138720, Aug. 2019.
  • O. Fišer, et al., Microwave non-invasive temperature monitoring using UWB radar for cancer treatment by hyperthermia, Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 2018, 2018(162), 1-14.
  • T. Martan, et al., Refractometric Detection of Liquids Using Tapered Optical Fiber and Suspended Core Microstructured Fiber: A Comparison of Methods. Applied Optics, 2017, 56(9), 2388-2396.
  • J. Macháč, M. Polívka, M. Švanda, J. Havlíček, Reducing mutual coupling in chipless RFID tags composed of U-folded dipole scatterers, Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 2723-2725, 2016.
  • J. Havlíček, M. Švanda, J. Macháč, M. Polívka, Improvement of reading performance of frequency domain chipless RFID transponders, Radioengineering, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 1-11, 2016.
  • M. Polívka, J. Havlíček, M. Švanda, J. Macháč, Improvement in robustness and recognizability of RCS response of U shaped strip-based chipless RFID tags, IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2016.
  • J. Kraček, M. Švanda, M. Mazánek, J. Macháč, Implantable semi-active UHF RFID tag with inductive wireless power transfer, IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 15, 2016.
  • M. Švanda, M. Polívka, On-body semi-electrically-small tag antenna for UHF RFID platform-tolerant applications, IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 631-637, 2016.
  • J. Pokorný, et al., Energy Parasites Trigger Oncogene Mutation, International Journal of Radiation Biology, 2016, 2016(4), 1-15.
  • O. Fišer, I. Merunka, J. Vrba, Waveguide Applicator System for Head and Neck Hyperthermia Treatment, Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology, 2016, 11(6), 1744-1753.


  • M. Švanda, M. Polívka, Matching technique for an on-body low-profile coupled-patches UHF RFID tag and for sensor antennas, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 2295-2301, 2015.
  • M. Polívka, M. Švanda, Stepped impedance coupled-patches tag antenna for platform-tolerant UHF RFID applications, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 3791-3797, 2015.
  • M. Švanda, M. Polívka, Illustration of the impedance behaviour of extremely low profile coupled shorted-patches antennas for UHF RFID of people, International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2014, no. 2014, art. no. 712790, pp. 1-10, 2014.
  • M. Chovanec, et al. Does Attempt at Hearing Preservation Microsurgery of Vestibular Schwannoma Affect Postoperative Tinnitus?, BioMed Research International, 2015.
  • >D. Havelka, M. Cifra, O. Kučera, Multi-mode electro-mechanical vibrations of a microtubule: In silico demonstration of electric pulse moving along a microtubule, Applied Physics Letters, 2014, 104(24), 243702-1-243702-4.
  • T. Dřížďal, et al. Waveguide-based Applicators for Superficial Hyperthermia Treatment: is Tuning Really Required?, Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, 2013, 6(27), 682-690.
  • H. Dobšíček-Trefná, et al. Design of a Wideband Multi-channel System for Time Reversal Hyperthermia, International Journal of Hyperthermia, 2012, 28(2), 175-183.
  • B. Vrbová, J. Vrba, Microwave Thermotherapy in Cancer Treatment: Evaluation of Homogeneity of SAR Distribution, Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 2012, 129 181-195.